Glossary: B -TEISS® : Cracking Cyber Security

Glossary / Glossary: B

Glossary: B

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Back door A feature of a supposedly secure computer system that allows secret or unauthorised access, generally for nefarious purposes. See Trojan
Backup File copies that are saved as protection against loss, damage or unavailability of the primary data. Saving methods include high-capacity tape, separate disk sub-systems or on the Internet. Off-site backup storage is ideal, sufficiently far away to reduce the risk of environmental damage such as flood, which might destroy both the primary and the backup if kept nearby
Badware See Malware, Adware and Spyware
Bandwidth The capacity of a communication channel to pass data such as text, images, video or sound through the channel in a given amount of time. Usually expressed in bits per second.
Baselining Monitoring computer networks to determine typical use patterns so that significant deviations can be detected and investigated
BIA See Business Impact Analysis
Bit The basic unit of information in (non quantum) computing systems, which can have one of two states, commonly represented as 0 and 1; bit is a contraction of “binary digit”.
Black list Entities such as programs, computers or websites that are blocked from having access to a system
Blended threat A computer network attack that seeks to maximize the severity of damage and speed of contagion by combining methods—for example, using characteristics of both viruses and worms. See also Electronic Infection
Blog Short for “Web log”, a blog is an online diary or journal. It is usually offered in a dated log format with the most recent entry at the top of the page. While some blogs are very popular most are only read by the writer and their mum
Boot sector malware Malware (qv) that “hides” in the booting software that starts a computer up, before the main operating system (e.g. Windows) loads; in this way the malware can evade detection by the security software that is activated after the operating system has loaded
Bot Short for Robot. A computer connected to the internet that , unknown to the owner, has been infected with malicious software that allows it to be controlled by someone else
Botnet A network of bots (qv); using a large number of infected computers together gives their controller power to wreak the havoc they desire
Broadband “Always on” high-speed network connections that allow the rapid uploading and downloading of files such as video and computer games. Often the speed delivered by a broadband provider is considerably lower than that advertised
Browser A software program that can show information from servers on the World Wide Web, such as websites
Browser hijacking A technique that changes the default home page or search engine that your browser uses when you start it up generally for commer­cial purposes
Brute force attack An attack on a computer system that involves systematically trying all possible combinations of keyboard characters until the password is found; longer passwords are obviously less suscepti­ble to this form of attack
Buffer overflow Many software programmes have “buffers” where temporary information is stored; these have a limited size and can be over-whelmed when too much information is directed at them; when this happens the information (which in a deliberate attack can include malicious code) can overflow into other parts of a computer’s memory, which can lead either to a crash or to unauthorised code running
Bug A small imperfection in a digital device or software that causes it to perform unexpectedly or with reduced efficiency
Bulk encryption A process of encrypting and decrypting data that is being transmitted from one computer or network to another computer or network as a way of protecting it
Business Impact Analysis (BIA) Part of a Business Continuity Plan that aims to detect vulnerabili­ties and assess their likely effect on operational efficiency
BYOA Bring Your Own Application. The informal use by employees of applications, software and web services that are not authorised by their employer, and which can result in information security risks
BYOC Bring your own cloud; the use of public cloud computing (qv) such as Google Docs and DropBox to store corporate information so as to make it accessible to the user when they are not able to connect to the corporate network
BYOD Bring Your Own Device; the use by employees of their own digital devices, typically smartphones and tablets, to access work infor­mation and perform work functions
BYOIT Bring Your Own IT. See BYOA, BYOC and BYOD
Byte 8 bits of information, the amount needed to encode a single character and in many computer systems the smallest unit of information that memory can address

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